Materials Science II

Course Code:

Π1 4040


4th Semester

Specialization Category:

Required ( ΜΕΥ )

Course Hours:




Course Tutors

Stamatios Boyatzis

Course Description

Course Theory

FATS AND OILS: Chemical composition and properties of lipids. Xirainomena oils. Mechanisms of drying-polymerization of xirainomenon oils. Factors and mechanisms of deterioration of painted layers. Methodology and examples of chemical analysis of lipids in art and archaeological finds. NATURAL WAXES: Types of natural waxes and their use in painting and conservation of works of art. Detection and identification of natural waxes in works of and archaeological findings. NATURAL RESINS: Types of natural resins and their chemical composition. Natural resin varnishes. Methodology of chemical analysis of natural resins. Examples of analysis and characterization of natural resins in artworks and archaeological findings. PROTEIN MATERIALS: Structure of protein macromolecules. Physical and chemical properties (solubility, denaturation, staining reactions, hydrolysis and oxidation reactions). Protein binders in painting (animal glue, egg, etc.). Protein materials of museum objects (skin, bones, animal fibers, etc.). Examples of analysis and characterization of protein materials in works of art and archaeological finds. POLYSACCHARIDES: starch, cellulose, gums. Structure of macromolecules. Physical and chemical properties. Degradation reactions of polysaccharide macromolecules. Methods of polysaccharide analysis. DYES (ORGANIC COLORANTS): Categories of organic colorants: natural and synthetic dyes. Chemical, physical, chemical and spectroscopic properties of organic colorants. Dyes and lakes. STRUCTURE AND ACTION OF SOLVENTS: Internal energy of molecules. Intermolecular forces. Dipole moment of molecules and dielectric constant. Dispersion and polarity forces. Hydrogen bonding. Other polar interactions: dipole-dipole interactions. Hildebrand’s and Hansen’s solubility parameters. Fractional solubility parameters. Teas ternary diagrams. SELECTION OF SUITABLE SOLVENT: Correlation of solvent molecules structure with solubility parameters. Solvent categories. Calculation of solubility parameters for solvent mixtures. The use of the Teas diagram in choosing the appropriate solvent. Solvents toxicity. Extraction of industrial solvents LD50 and TLV information ​​from manufacturer’s data. THE STRUCTURE OF SYNTHETIC POLYMERS: Methods of polymer formation. Monomers and monomer units in a polymer chain. Chain length. Number-average and weight-average molecular weight (Mn and Mw). Isomeric polymers: linear and branched polymers; cross-linked polymer structures. Homopolymers and copolymers. Categories of copolymers. PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS: crystallinity and melting point. Glass transition temperature. Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Elastomers. Consolidants, coatings and adhesives – glues. Mechanical properties: tensile testing; compression and torsion of polymeric materials. Chemical properties and durability of polymers; shelf life. Correlating polymer structures with their physical properties. SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF POLYMERS: polymer resins based on acrylic acid and esters. The Acryloid (or Paraloid) family of resins. Polymers based on vinyl alcohol; vinyl resins: Polyvinyl acetate. Polyethylene glycols (PEG). Synthetic derivatives of cellulose. Polycarbonate materials. The use of solvents in Synthetic Polymers: Mechanism of dissolution of polymer materials. Swelling. Radius of interaction on the basis of Hansen’s solubility parameters. Location of a polymer within Teas diagram.


The Scope of the Course and Objectives

The Scope of the Course

Students should be able to understand molecular structure, properties and methods of dissolution of synthetic and naturally derived materials and of conservation.

Course objectives

To gain skills in the solvating power of specific liquids, and some chemical properties of these materials.

Language of evaluation: Greek
The student’s final grade results from 50% of the grade of the theoretical part and 50% of the grade of laboratory practice.
Students’ evaluation (100%):
Student evaluation method: questions demanding short succinct answers; multiple choice questions; questions demanding short essays;
• Theory course (50%): written exam
• Laboratory course (50%): (a) Written laboratory essay per practical (β) written exam

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