1. Structure and geometry of organic molecules. Isomerism. Geometric isomerism and stereoisomerism. Chirality and optical activity. Racemic mixtures.
2. Nomenclature of organic molecules. Carbon chains and heteroatoms. Homologous series and functional groups (hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, amino acids, lipids. Aromatic compounds and aromatic character. Terpenic compounds).
3. Electronic structure of organic molecules. Hybridization: sp3, sp2 and sp. Sigma bonding and saturated compounds. Unsaturation; π-bonding in double and triple bonds. π and π* molecular orbitals in unsaturated organic compounds. Molecular energy levels. Structure of molecules and their physical and spectroscopic properties in the ultraviolet / visible. Chromophore groups. Electronic transitions (σ àπ* and πà π*). Structural features of colored compounds: organic pigments, dyes. Luminescence.
4. Chemical reactions of organic molecules. Substitution, addition and elimination reactions. Oxidation of organic compounds. Mechanisms of organic reactions. Electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions. Free radicals and homolytic reactions. Reaction rates and temperature effect. Arrhenius law. Mechanisms of reactions (chain reactions, polymerization, catalysis, enzyme catalysis).
5. Macromolecules – biomolecules. Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; polysaccharides. Synthetic polymers and resins. Polymerization reactions. Properties of polymers.
Course Aims and Objectives
To understand the structure of carbon compounds; how they form molecules, nomenclature and some basic physical and chemical properties.
The students are expected to be familiar with organic chemical structures and correlate these, and their properties, with those of routinely encountered materials; to deal with issues and questions related to stereochemistry and chemical reactivity.